In a photo, Earth might seem unassuming, a fleck, its blue-and-white marbling stark against a black interstellar backdrop. Yet the image likely evokes some reaction.
Now imagine seeing this view from space.
Astronauts who experience Earth from orbit often report feelings of awe and wonder, of being transformed by what they describe as the magic such a perspective brings. This phenomenon is called the “overview effect,” and researchers are studying it to better understand the emotions astronauts commonly recount.
A team from the University of Pennsylvania’s Positive Psychology Center wants to look at implications for space flight as the aeronautical community heads toward years-long missions to places like Mars, and to understand how to induce a similar sensation for non-astronauts. They report their findings in the journal Psychology of Consciousness.
To understand the overview effect, research fellow and lead author David Yaden and colleagues analyzed excerpts from astronauts from all over the world who documented viewing Earth from space. Themes emerged from the quotes, ideas like unity, vastness, connectedness, perception—in general, this sense of an overwhelming, life-changing moment.
“We watch sunsets whenever we travel to beautiful places to get a little taste of this kind of experience. These astronauts are having something more extreme,” says Yaden. “By studying the more-extreme version of a general phenomenon, you can often learn more about it.”
Yaden’s research specialty is such self-transcendent or spiritual experiences. Most often, he says, they come entangled in a religious context, but not for astronauts.
“Space is so fascinating because it’s a highly scientific, highly secular environment, so it doesn’t have these connotations,” he says. “We think of people who do a lot of meditation or climb mountains, people who are awe junkies, having these experiences. We don’t [often] think of these very strict scientists reporting these blissful moments.”
Not only that, but the experiences also can be duplicated. “Behavior is extremely hard to change, so to stumble across something that has such a profound and reproducible effect,” says research fellow and coauthor Johannes Eichstaedt, “that should make psychologists sit up straight and say, ‘What’s going on here? How can we have more of this?’”
Part of that answer could result from a planned follow-up experiment using virtual reality that gives participants the chance to Earth-gaze. This could result in an experience similar to the overview effect. “In the end, what we care about is how to induce these experiences,” Eichstaedt says. “They help people in some ways be more adaptive, feel more connected, reframe troubles.”
The researchers also say psychology should be part of the equation for extended space missions, and they hope to create concrete recommendations for maintenance of astronaut well being long-term. In their estimation, the overview effect, a positive process already occurring in space flight, can help.
They’re looking to the private sector, to groups like SpaceX, Blue Origin, or Virgin Galactic, as an interim step to get there. But ideally, they’re aiming to collaborate with astronauts already back from space and those on their way up.
“We’re outlining a phenomenon that’s fascinating,” Yaden says. “This is our first step, and we hope that we can take this and go further.”
Source: University of Pennsylvania